“Social media provides a unique opportunity for luxury brands to engage with target consumers as well as create a tangible, yet aspirational experience for those that will be consumers of its products in the future,” said Bryan Segal, CEO at Engagement Labs. “Therefore, not only are these brands using social media to drive sales, but also creating brand experiences that illicit desire and build brand affinity.”

However, while luxury brands have a wide-reaching appeal and extremely large followings, Engagement Labs’ data indicates they engage and interact less with followers than typically seen with other retail brands the company measures.

“These luxury brands are missing out on opportunities to engage and activate audiences through two-way conversations,” said Segal. “By posting more frequently and responding to followers comments, luxury brands could elevate not only their online footprint, but also increase WOM conversations, and in turn build brand awareness to drive a path to purchase,” he said.

On the visual-platform Instagram, Valentino placed first with an eValue score of 82.7 out of the possible 100, and had the highest engagement score. The company posted significantly more content than the other brands measured and had the most active user base. The content shared by the brand featured professional images of its products, user-generated content from well-known fashion bloggers, as well as images of celebrities wearing its products.

Valentino on the visual-platform Instagram
On Facebook, high-end shoe brand Christian Louboutin ranked first with the highest overall eValue score, as well as the highest engagement and responsiveness scores among the group. The company leveraged short posts and included professional photography of its signature red-bottomed shoes accompanied by the hashtag #LouboutinWorld which enabled the brand to generate the most likes and shares per 1,000 fans.

The Facebook fan-page of Christian Louboutin

When Engagement Labs looked at the social media performance on Twitter, the company found jewelry brand Tiffany & Co. ranked first for overall eValue score and had the highest engagement and responsiveness scores. Tiffany & Co. leveraged a range of content including photos of celebrities purchasing its products, to user-generated content from popular fashion bloggers, as well as promotions for new products. The brand’s most engaged tweets featured the #WillYou hashtag, in reference to its signature engagement rings.

Tiffany on Twitter 

Colours have natural associations that either strengthen or soften them. This is based on the color wheel - the graphic representation of the way colours are formed - and once you understand the color wheel, combining and matching colours into pleasing pairings becomes easy.

The Fashion Colour wheel
Primary colours
It is the fundamental color combination, generated by pure colours:

  • red
  • yellow
  • blue
The beauty of the combination suggested an important primary palette to artists such as Piet Mondrian and Roy Liechtenstein.

Primary colours in this classic YSL
Secondary colours
The secondary colour combination associates the secondary colours

  • orange
  • green
  • purple. 
It creates a feeling fresh and inspiring.

Secondary colours combinations

Complementary colours
This combination includes the choice of colours directly opposite:

  • green / red
  • blue / orange
  • yellow / purple. 
These colours enhance each other, when viewed side by side, pro-ducing a vibrant optical sensation.

Complementary colours
Analogous colours
Three colours that are located adjacent to one another on the chromatic scale (including their tints and shades of shadow) are considered analogous. These colors create the pleasant effects of harmony.

Analogous colours

Contrasting colours
The combinations of contrasting colours have a strong and striking effect. To obtain a contrasting combination, you have to associate a color with the color that is to each side of its complementary (for example, blue with red or orange).

Contrasting colours

Colour is a sign. It has a signifier, which is the particular shade of light, and a signified, which varies and is determined by human perception and by the feeling sparked by light radiation.

Colour is generated by light. Without light we have not colour. So, colour is light and being light is a form of energy, that generates different emotions

Light and neutral, white goes well with any color. Associat-ed with cleanliness and purity, innocence and gentleness, it gives you a feeling of freedom and uncluttered openness.

The innocence and gentleness of white
A mysterious colour, it gives you a feeling of perspective and depth. Symbolizing elegance and refinement, it is always regarded as a prestigious color.

The black colour in this Dior 2017 adv
An expressive colour extensively used in fashion and de-sign, red is the most visible and lively of all colours, and creates attraction and excitement. The wearer naturally portrays an image of energy, enthusiasm and confidence. It also suggests an erotic feeling.

Rachel Platten, the "woman in red" for the American Heart Association's Go Red For Women
Similar to red, it creates attraction and excitement. However it suggests a more fun and sunshiny mood. Usually liked by those who embrace changes.

The yellow of Elie Saab Resort 2017 Fashion Show
A popular colour liked by most. Emotionally opposite to red and yellow, it brings about a very soothing and relaxed feel, pleasant to the eyes. Naturally refreshing in mood, it's a good choice for daytime wear.

The blue of Byblos Fall/ Winter 2016-2017 RTW - Milan Fashion Week
It helps open the heart so we may be more empathetic to those around us. It is often a colour we are drawn to when we are under emotional stress, because it promotes relaxation and calmness and soothes the emotions.

Greenery, the colour of the year 2017 of Pantone
Purples and violets are connected with many of your higher senses i.e., sensitivity, spirituality, compassion and higher ideals. Like blue, these colours stimulate creativity and in-spiration. Purples and violets have a purifying, antiseptic effect, and are physically cooling.

The purple of Hermès F/W 2017 show at Palais de Chaillot, Paris

Discursive structures refer to the space, time and actors in the advertising image. In other words, when and where the scene is set and who acts in it.

The three elements used are the following:
  • Actorization (actors )
  • Temporization (time)
  • Spacialization (space)
Through the architecture codes we can understand if the scene is set in Paris (in the image we can see the Trocadero or the Eiffel Tower), and so we have the space.

The architecture codes in this image of Marc Lamey
Through the furniture codes we can understand if the time in which the scene is set is the present time (in the image we can see a TV or a tablet), and so we have the time.

Mobile phones in this Dolce&Gabbana fashion show
Through the clothes codes and the gestural codes we understand that the protagonist is a monk or a fireman, a young lady or a rude biker, and so we have the actors.

The biker David Beckham
Sometimes the space and the time are missing in the image. There is not furniture or architecture and the model can be naked.

In this case we can obtain an idea of the concept as valid al-ways and everywhere.

Many coherent and integrated signs form a code. Some codes are very useful in understanding the time or the place where the scene is set.

The most used codes are the following:

  • Mimetic codes – are the codes of facial expressions. The movement of facial muscles makes a face happy, sad or angry, serious or funny, shy or determine.
The mimetic codes of Evan Rachel Wood
  • Gestural codes – are the codes of body’s movements. For instance, keeping your arms crossed sends a message of closing, while keeping them open instead sends a message of acceptance and warmth.
Different gestural codes
  • Hairstyle codes – are the codes of coiffure and headdress . For instance, colouring your hair purple or green sends a mes-sage of transgression, whereas having your hair clean, bright and in good order sends an idea of cleanliness and re-liability.
Hairstyle codes
  • Proxemic codes – are codes related to position of objects in space. For instance, having a lot of objects scattered on your writing desk send an idea of disorder and confusion. The same objects placed in your writing desk in good order send an idea of reliability, order, cleanliness and safety.
Proxemic codes
  • Kinetic codes - are codes related to the movements of objects in space. For instance, many people running fast can send an idea of danger, the same people walking may send an idea of dynamism and ordered movement.
Kinetic codes in this Nike adv
  • Furniture Codes - are the codes of furniture. A modern furniture can send an idea of rigor, minimalism, ergonomics and simplicity. Antique furniture can send an idea of authenticity, tradition, warmth and comfort.
The furniture codes of Maria Iqbal
  • Architecture Codes – are the codes of building. There is a difference between an apartment and a church, or between a school and a villa with a pool. Every building wants to send a different feeling.
Archictecture codes in this Chanel adv
  • Clothes codes – are used to send a lot of messages. A dress can be a symbol of elegance or transgression, of sensuality or can send the idea of a jaunty air.
Clothes codes in this Dior Cruise 2017 (photo Daniel Jackson )

This is not the usual glossy book on the world of fashion. It is a wellspring of valuable advice to understand and learn how to use the secret language of luxury objects and of fashion clothing and accessories. A language of forms, symbols,icons, codes and colours, which has subconscious effects on the perception, attitude and purchasing desire of the target.It is a must read for all those who work in the fashion & luxury communication business and wish to do so in the most impactful way possible.

“Fashion Semiology, the Language of Fashion and Luxury through Style, Communication and Marketing” continues ideally on the web, creating a strong synergy ween the print and the digital mediums. The images are, in fact, available either by using the QRCODE (an innovative feature in an essay) or by visiting the www.fashionsemiology.it blog.

Cinzia Ligas, semiotician, and Fausto Crepaldi, digital media director, are among the foremost experts in Italy in luxury communication. They are consultants in semiomarketing, fashion semiology, fashion video advertising and virtual fashion, and lecturers at various prestigious university institutes.

Fausto Crepaldi e Cinzia Ligas
Fashion Semiology
The Language of Fashion and Luxury through Style, Communication and Marketing

€ 29,00

First edition – June 2012
Publishing series “im books”


A text is a series of concepts that are linked together, be-tween a beginning point and a stopping point.

For example:

  • a picture, a film, a video, a photo or a painting are visual texts
  • a novel or a letter is a verbal text
  • a symphony or a play is a sound text 
  • a statue or a model are plastic texts

Lady Dior Cruise 2017 Advertising Campaign is a visual text

The models of Emporio Armani spring/summer 2017 fashion show are a plastic text
Text can be:

  • synchronic
  • diachronic
It is synchronic when all the signs contained in it are sent together in the same moment and the receiver can use them when he prefers.

It is diachronic when the signs are sent in different moment and follow a timeline and the receiver is obliged to follow the order imposed by the sender.

The video of Gucci 2017 Campaign is a diachronic text
So, a picture is a synchronic text, instead a video is a diachronic.

A sign is a bifacial entity composed of two parts: the signifier and the signified.
The signified is the concept, the idea that one wants to send. The signifier is the perceptible part of the sign: is the drawing, the sound or the object that forms the sign.

Signs are divided into three groups:
  • symbols
  • icons
  • indices
The sign is an icon when the signifier looks like reality. For instance, a girl’s picture is an icon of that girl, because is similar to reality, is similar to the girl.

It’s a symbol when the signifier doesn’t look like reality. For instance, a red, white and blue flag is the symbol of France, because it’s not similar to reality, It’s not similar to the whole of France. It represents the France but obviously it doesn’t look like French people, French language, French food, French towns or French geography. In conclusion, doesn’t look like France.

The index is a natural sign, without a sender. For example a rainbow is an index, a natural sign that before this moment it had rained. Nobody drew this sign on the sky. There isn’t a sender. There is only this wonderful natural sign.

It’s important to understand the role and the rules of this concept.

It’s a very useful tool to analyzing and creating an effective fashion and luxury visual text, synchronic rather than diachronic.